Master Thesis by Research 1998: A Packet Discard Strategy for Congestion Control of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Data Networks

Master Thesis by Research 1998:
A Packet Discard Strategy for Congestion Control of
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Data Networks

Table of Content

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Congestion in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks

Chapter 3 Queueing Analysis of the M[x]/D/1 Queue

Chapter 4 Modelling of the Packet Discard Strategy

Chapter 5 Modelling of the Cell Discard Strategy

Chapter 6 Numerical Analysis

Chapter 7 Conclusion

References

Appendix

System wholeness and Unity in Diversity within ISSS 2016 系統的完整性與系統界之求同存異、博大精深、見微知著、對立統一。

中醫藥工程學 Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering

Chicken or egg first 先有雞還是先有雞蛋?

國際系統科學協會第60屆週年國際研討會 The 60th Annual World Conference of the International Society for the Systems Sciences www.isss.org/

健康與系統思維特別融合小組 Health and System thinking Special Integration Group

Workshop : 2016.07.24 University of Colorado, USA.

系統論基礎工作坊:佛學的東方系統思維 以天人合一理解系統完整性 Systems Basics in Understanding System Wholeness “Reuniting Nature and Humanity”: The Oriental Systems Thinking in the teaching of Buddha.

Presentation: System wholeness and Unity in Diversity within ISSS 系統的完整性與系統界之求同存異、博大精深、見微知著、對立統一。

Abstract: A better way to explain the wholeness from an oriental point of view is the major direction of our research, but in the end it seems to coincide with modern Western systems thinking such as Relational-theory and DSRP systems thinking, as well as physics and mathematics. The first step starts from the concentration on the parts as in Reductionistic thinking, to the concentration on wholeness as in Systems thinking. Both schools of thought are important in their corresponding applications. The second step involves the combination of the observer and decision maker into the system, similar to the five aggregates human mind system in the teaching of Buddha, and the Relational-Theory by John Kineman. But finally the structure of the environment also need to be included for the sack of wholeness, similar to Schema theory by Kent Palmer. Now all three are coming together and forming the much better wholeness. However, this is only the structure and properties of the wholeness, and there is also the diagnostic and regulative part from Traditional Chinese Medicine, which could be the application part of systems theory in real life problem solving. Together they are very promising in forming the wholeness of systems theory and systems practice.

The structures and functions of human body in Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on the oriental system thinking of Taichi Yin-Yang structures and functions. Researches show that similar structures and functions are found in modern Western systems theories which are composed of systems, observers and decision makers, and the environment. TCM employs different systemic models to diagnose the human body. However, all these models employ the common 3D structure of Superficial-Internal, Cold-Hot, and Deficient-Excess spectrums. This oriental systems thinking seems promising in combining with modern Western systems theory in the application of system diagnosis and re-balancing. It is hoped that the combination of the east-west systems thinking will finally help human understanding in solving the modern complex problems.

Chinese writing, English writing, Middle East writing emerging from different directions will in the end all occupy the whole paper to express the intended ideas, emotion, systems, instructions, and knowledge. Different systemic models arise together with their corresponding observers and decision makers. That is, people located with different geometrical properties, from Southern or Northern part of china. In addition, people with different properties because of the different state of their civilization, either at war or peace, lack of or over-supply of food, too much leisure or too much hard work. That is to say, the systemic model is also related to the environment, combined and emerged into the perspectives part, the water sub-system, of the whole system.

References:

-Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering by Tomas www.YinYangBalance.Asia

中醫藥工程學 黃炎 – www.陰陽平衡.com

-Schemas Theory Research Initiative by Kent Palmer http://schematheory.net/

-Relational Theory by John Kineman relational-science.org

-DSRP systems thinking by Derek Cabrera stdaily.ghost.io/tag/dsrpfaq/

-Platonic Solids in All Dimensions: http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/platonic.html

 

 

 

Protected: 《春秋大義》《中國人的精神》The Spirit of the Chinese People 1915

This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:

The THESAURUS LITERATURAE BUDDHICAE (TLB) is a multilingual presentation of Buddhist literature sentence by sentence in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, English, etc. 佛學文獻詞庫( TLB )是以梵文,中文,西藏文,英文等多語種的逐句佛學文獻演說

Link

The THESAURUS LITERATURAE BUDDHICAE (TLB) is a multilingual presentation of Buddhist literature sentence by sentence in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, English, etc. 文獻詞庫( TLB )是以梵文,中文,西藏文,英文等多語種的逐句佛學文獻演說

SYNTHESIZING TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE AND ENGINEERING THROUGH SYSTEM ENGINEERING – Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering 以系統工程學綜合中醫藥與工程學 – 中醫藥工程學

Presentation: 13:30 Parallel Sessions – Tuesday July 29, 2014 Funger Hall Room 207 Funger Hall Room 220 ISSS2014 conference paper #2286

Full Paper: T S L Wong, E C Yan Huang, 2016, Synthesising Traditional Chinese Medicine and Engineering through Systems Engineering: Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS), Vol 1, No 1 (2016) ISSN: 1999-6918

ABSTRACT

This paper searches for an entry point and a platform to learn across boundaries to achieve synthesis, so that Traditional Chinese Medicine and system engineering could also understand each other and benefit from each other. The search involves investigation of both western and eastern point of view including systems theories, set theory, Confucianism, and Daoism. A promising Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System is established through this research.

Keywords: Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System 陰陽五行天地人系統, pattern identification/syndrome differentiation and treatment/ Differential Diagnosis-cure process 辨證論治, holism 整體觀念, unification between nature and human 天人相應, differentiation and integration 分辨與整合,微分與積分, Fractals, macroscopic-microscopic systemic view 宏觀與微觀的系統性, 中庸 doctrine of the mean, 中道 The middle path, synthesizing, traditional chinese medicine, engineering, system engineering, traditional chinese medicine engineering 中醫藥工程學, Systems Thinking, Good n Evil Yin-Yang chart, DSRP system, Relational Theory, Schema Theory, Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism

INTRODUCTION

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been servicing and maintaining the health of human bodies for thousands of years. Due to the isolation and control policies of the last two dynasties Ming and Qing, scientific inventions are not being applied to TCM. On the other hand, Western Medicine (WM) has been technologically advanced by the engineering of the industrial revolution age.

Nowadays, many researchers and engineers have tried to advance TCM with modern technologies, for example, medical expert diagnosis system, office automation, herbal ingredient spectrum analysis, modern medical diagnosis machines. However, the merging has not resulted in much advancement in TCM as in WM. The reason, as believed, is that TCM is a holistic diagnosis-cure process while industrial revolution age engineering is reductionism.

It is believed that real advancement could be achieved by the synthesis of TCM with system engineering. Not only that TCM could be advanced, system engineering could also benefit from the experience of thousands of years of holistic servicing and maintaining the human body complex system. This paper searches for the entry point and the platform to learn across boundaries for the synthesis, so that TCM and system engineering could also understand each other and benefit from each other.

TCM is being practiced daily based on the theory of differential diagnosis-cure process. It involves firstly, the awareness, that is, the systemic observation of the human body for information collection. Secondly, the perspectives, which involve the systemic choice of related rules and relationships. Thirdly is the systemic choice of importance, that is, the formulation of weighting of each piece of information and perspectives. Finally is the systemic choice of strategies, for regulation of the self-healing system of the human body to regain the balance. The cycle of these four aggregates would continue to adapt to changes in the environment and the human body system until the healthy objective is achieved. The current state of the human body is represented by three fundamental spectrums, namely, the Superficial-Internal spectrum, the Cold-Hot spectrum and the Deficiency-Excess spectrum, which are believed to have the same origin as set theory. The body can then be divided into five sub-systems namely, liver-wood, heart-fire, spleen-earth, lung-metal, and kidney-water, each system has its own sub-state represented by the same kind of three spectrums.

It is believed that the same diagnosis-cure principals could be applied to either natural or man-made systems. To develop a systemic expert diagnosis system in the perspective of system engineering would help TCM to practically make use of modern information revolution age engineering technology. It would also provide a platform for understanding the holistic view and application of TCM to the natural complex human body system.

Future work would involve the search for possible system engineering projects to be constructed for the other two important theories of TCM.

The theory of holism in TCM is embedded everywhere but usually referred to in the theory of “correspondence between nature and human”, or “human living with the environment”. The coherence is divided into three parts namely, the sky, the earth, and the human, which could correspond to time, space and observer (and decision maker). Different time of the year, location and people in the environment would provide favorable and unfavorable conditions for different actions.

The third theory for possible entry point is the differentiation and integration properties of the Taichi Yin-Yang system theory and the five elements system theory. This property shows that no matter how many times we differentiate a system into sub-systems, the Taichi Yin-Yang and five elements properties apply. On the other hand, no matter how many times we integrate sub-systems into a single system, the Taichi Yin-Yang and five elements properties also apply. This would facilitate the design, implementation and maintenance of the whole macroscopic-microscopic spectrum of systems.

With all three theories, one fundamental process applies to them all. That is, the continuous balancing of the spectrums in order to achieve the objectives. This same process exists in Confucianism as the “Doctrine of the Mean”, and also in the teaching of Buddha as “The Middle Path”.

SYSTEMS THINKING

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts was pointed out by Aristotle. Systems thinking involves more than just analyzing the object making up from different parts, but rather involves the parts and their relationships, the structure and functions of the object, its environment, the boundary, and the observer(s) and decision maker(s) as well (Dekkers 2014) as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The common structure and function of systems thinking

  1. The properties of the observer

Human senses works by differentiation (distinction) (Wong 2008) (Klein & Wong 2012). All senses differentiate the object (signal) from the environment through the boundary. In engineering terms the ability of the sensor to detect depends on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) (Wikipedia a). An analogy is the basic axions in set theory in mathematics (Al Lehnen 2007) as shown in Figure 2. As a result, the differentiation process produce three components namely A, not A and the boundary. It also produce two relationships namely union and interaction.

Figure 2. The Simplest Axioms in Set Theory

Since the differentiation inherited in the six human senses, namely sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste and thought (Wong 2008), is universal to human, it could be used as a common platform for communications.

TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS-CURE PROCESS

Traditional Chinese Medicine employs different differential diagnosis-cure processes to determine the state of the human body and prescribe corresponding strategies for a cure (Kaptchuk 2000)(Wong 2010c). And research shown that there exists a basic pattern (Wong 2007a)(Wong 2010c) for all the different processes, namely superficial-internal spectrum, cold-hot spectrum, and deficient-excess spectrum, which are first mentioned in (HuangDi 206BC- 25AD) (Gou 1999). The static and dynamics of the spectrums are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively.

Figure 3. The static form of 3 common spectrums in all TCM differential diagnosis-cure processes

Figure 4. The dynamic form of the 3 common spectrums

TCM is the maintenance engineering rather than design engineering of the human body. Research show that the body state of human body can be represented graphically as the simple Good n Evil Yin-Yang chart as in Figure 5a or the complete Good n Evil Yin-Yang chart with the Superficial-Internal spectrum as in Figure 5b (Wong 2005a).

Figure 5a. The simple Good and Evil Yin-Yang Chart

Figure 5b. The complete Good and Evil Yin-Yang Chart

Our research found that a 3D representation provides a more vivid understanding and could correlate with the representation of the dynamics in Cybernetics, as shown in Figure 6. However it should be noted that this 3D spectrum is not another representation of the 3D space. It is believed that future research would shown that the spectrums could be used to represent the whole space-time and systems together in one.

Figure 6. The 3D geometric representation of the Good and Evil Yin-Yang Chart

Note that the Taichi (boundary) Yin-Yang (not A and A) combo could be used to represent mathematical formulas, for representation of relationships and transformations. The most important formula in physics is,

E = mc2

Yang Taichi Yin

After re-arrangement, we have

E/c = mc

Yang compress Taichi Yin expand

which have division on the LHS and multiplication on the RHS. The division could be thought of as compression and the multiplication could be thought of as expansion geometrically on the number spectrum (Sanderson 2015). This compression of energy into matters is found in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for making new matters, and the expansion of matter into energy is found in all nuclear plant. That is, the exchanges between Yin and Yang require two different processes. As a result, the static three elements in the Taichi Yin-Yang combo requires two more processes to become dynamic. Five elements exists in oriental systems thinking in TCM, Confucianism and Doaism (Wong 2008). Our research shown that the five element systems could be represented as in Figure 7 with the engendering (birth) cycle and the restraining (control) cycle (Wong 2005a).

Figure 7. The Five Elements System

Therefore, we started with the differentiation nature of human senses, which produce the three elements Taichi Yin-Yang combo, which then produce the five elements system. That is, the choice of three and five is not particular observer dependent, but rather universal to all observers.

The preliminary matching of the Five Elements System and other system theories are shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8. The preliminary matching of Five Elements System and other System Theories

Future work is underway to investigate the possible matching with Viable System Model (VSM) and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Five Elements System (Wong TBP)

THE FIVE AGGREGATES HUMAN SYSTEM OF BUDDHA

The five aggregates human system was employed by Buddha (Buddha 2500 BC) to represent the properties of human body and mind. The idea was explained in details in Vipassana mental healthcare 10 days courses held all over the world (Goenka1987a). Research shown the possible relationship between the five aggregates and the fundamental systems theory (Wong 2008) as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9. The Five Aggregates human system of Buddha

The fifth aggregate is the physical body which is composed of the four material elements of earth, water, fire and air (Goenka1987a). Together with the idea of emptiness mentioned in (Buddha 2500 BC), it is possible to match the five elements system in TCM, Confucianism and Doaism with the four material elements of Buddha. Future research would be to investigate if Figure 10 would be a possible practical match.

Figure 10. The Four Natures of Physical Matters of Buddha and the Five Elements

THE UNIFICATION OF NATURE AND HUMAN IN CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM

The idea of “unification of nature and human” was pointed out in Confucianism and Daoism, and was one of the most important concept in TCM (Kaptchuk 2000, 天人合一). Confucianism pointed out that in I Ching Hexagram that the top two lines represent Heaven (), middle to lines represent Human (), and the bottom two lines represent Earth () as shown in Figure 11 (Confucius 479 BC, part II 兼三才而兩之).

___ ___
___ ___Heaven ()
___ ___
______Human ()
______
______Earth ()

Figure 11. The Heaven Earth and Human System

Water is the most important elements in the teaching of Daoism (Laozi 590 BC, Ch 8, 76, 78). Water has almost the same properties of Dao (Tao), with the difference being water has form while Dao has none. Maybe the water system in the five elements system theory could be expanded into five elements as well.

SCHEMA THEORY

Schema theory is developed by Dr. Kent Palmer (Palmer 2004) for constructing a foundation for systems engineering. Figure 12 shows the possible matching of the three levels of five elements systems with the 13 levels in Schema theory, namely Pluriverse, Kosmos, World, Domain, Open Scape, Reflexive Social, Autopoietic Symbiotic, Dissipative ordering, System, Form, Pattern, Monad, Facet. Note that it match with a five elements system structure with the Earth and Water systems expanded into two other five elements systems of different levels, resulting in 13 levels! It has been the believe that the environment is outside the five systems at level i, however, our research shows that the five elements system could be more compact, simple and fractal.

Figure 12. The Basic 13 Levels in Schema Theory

TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE ENGINEERING

It should be noted that the 13 levels structure of the level i+-1 system could be applied to any system at level i. From the above analysis, the whole structure seem to be the direct result of the observation nature of the human observers, rather than an arbitrary invention. We named this discovery as the Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System as shown in Figure 13.

TCM inherited as a daily practice, the essence of oriental ancient systems thinking. It does not only contain the basic structure of systems but also the maintenance process of the human systems. Therefore, the theory is useful for both design engineering and maintenance engineering.

Figure 13. The Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System

TCM was thought of as the macroscopic level medicine while the western medicine was thought of as the microscopic one. Therefore resulting in strong conflicts between them. However, with the help of systems engineering, it reveals that both the human level i system and the cell level i-x system would have the same systemic structure and functions. This common platform would provide effective communications between TCM and WM for investigating the best medicine for regulating human bodies.

CONCLUSION

In this paper we start from the investigation of the properties of human senses but similarities are found in different fields of sciences including mathematics, physics, engineering, systems thinking and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previous research combined the observer and systems into one Five Elements System and the environment as the element outside the Five Elements System. However in this paper, the Five Elements Level i+-1 system is established, which includes all the fundamental components of systems thinking in just one Five Elements Systems, with nothing else outside. The Water sub-system is the environment. This important discovery is very promising and would largely advance the Taichi Yin-Yang Systems theory and the Five Elements System theory.

It is believed that the Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System structure and system function could be used as a systems design tool or a system maintenance tool, for systems with any size and complexity. Moreover, the Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System model could be used as a platform for communications between analysis of different levels of i+-x. For example, it could be a communication platform for the modern medical cellular analysis at level i-x, the TCM human healthcare analysis at level i, and even the social analysis at level i+x.

Future works could involve the mathematical constant ratio and transformation functional relationships between the five systems and the systems at different levels.

REFERENCES

Al Lehnen. (2007) An Elementary Introduction to Logic and Set Theory. Accessed at http://faculty.matcmadison.edu/alehnen/weblogic/logset.htm#Unions on May 1, 2007.

Buddha (2500 BC). The Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra 《般若波羅蜜多心經》
. India (Heart Sutra / The Heart of Prajna Paramita Sutra)

Confucius (479 BC). Confusions Ten Wings shiyi 十翼China《系辭上傳》曰:「一陰一陽謂之道」. Accessible at http://www.fushantang.com/4000/02/p2047.html, on May 1, 2007.

Dekkers Rob (2014). Applied Systems Theory. Springer

FuXi Shi 伏羲氏. (1122 BC). I Ching. China. Accessible at http://afpc.asso.fr/wengu/wg/wengu.php?l=Yijing&no=0, on May 1, 2007.

Goenka S. N 葛印卡老師, (1987a). THE DISCOURSE SUMMARIES Talks from a Ten-Day Course 開示集要 in Vipassana Meditation. http://www.dhamma.org/ , http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_ss_b?url=search-alias%3Dstripbooks&field-

keywords=discourse+on+vipassana+goenka

Gou, A. (1999). 黄帝內经素问校注语译 Huangdi Neijing Suwen Jiao Zhu Yu Yi (Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic: Plain Questions ?Critically Compared, Annotated and Translated) ISBN 7-5308-2114-8.Tianjin Science and Technology Press, Tianjin, China.

HuangDi 黃帝 (206BC- 25AD). Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine). China. Also available at http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/reader/0520021584/ref=sib_rdr_fc?ie=UTF8&p=S001&j=0#reader-page on May 1, 2007.

Kaptchuk Ted. (2000) The web that has no weaver: Understanding Chinese Medicine. McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN:0809228408

Klein, Louis; Wong, T S L (2012). The Yin and Yang of Changes: Systemic Efficacy in Change Management [Full Paper]. Leadership through the Classics: Learning Management and Leadership from Ancient East and West Philosophy,  International Conference on Leadership and Management in a Changing World:Lessons from Ancient East and West Philosophy? www.leadershipclassics.org Athens, Greece, 12-14 June 2011, p475-486 Part VII Chapter 32. Also published in Leadership through the Classics: Learning Management and Leadership from Ancient East and West Philosophy, Edited by: Gregory Prastacos, Fuming Wang and Klas Eric Soderquist Published by Springer; ISBN: 978-3-642-32444-4 (Print), 978-3-642-32445-1 (Online) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelbery 2012

Laozi, (Lao Tse) 老子(590 BC). Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching)《道德經》. China. Accessible at http://www.thetao.info/english/english.htm http://afpc.asso.fr/wengu/wg/wengu.php?l=Daodejing&no=0 on May 1, 2007.

Palmer Kent D. (2004). The Foundations of General Schemas Theory – As an Extension to Systems Theory to Form a Mathematical and Philosophical Basis for Systems Engineering, USA. Conference on System Engineering Research CSER 2004 available at www.schematheory.net

Sanderson Grant  (2015). How to Think About Exponentials. www.3blue1brown.com. also available in video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_0yfvm0UoU 

Wikipeida (a)  Signal-to-noise ratio 

Wong, T.S.L and others (2005a). Traditional Chinese Medicine Diet – the food dictionary 中醫食療字典, ISBN 978-988-985-865-0, Copyright Ancient Balance Medicine Education Center Ltd., Hong Kong 版權所有 古中醫教育中心有限公司(香港).

Wong, T.S.L.and others. (2007a). The modern logic of the TCM differential diagnostic process 辨證論治的現代邏輯 [Oral presentation]. 29th AACMA Australasian Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine Annual Conference. Brisbane, Australia 18 – 20 May 2007.

Wong, T S L; Huang Yan (2008) THE QUEST FOR A GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY FOR ANY PARTICULAR PERSPECTIVE – does it ever exist or has it been there all the time?[Full paper] Australia and New Zealand system Society’s ANZSYS conference 2008. Edith Cowan University (ECU), Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 1 -2 December 2008.Available at: http://www.ec-balance.org/edu/anzsys_observer.htm 

Wong, T S L; Huang Yan (2010c) The quest for a general information gathering process for diagnosis at the macroscopic level and the microscopic level – the Traditional Chinese Medicine eight principle differential diagnostic-cure process. [Abstract] 54th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences – Governance for a Resilient Planet. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada 18–23 July 2010. Available at: http://www.ec-balance.org/edu/ISSS2010_TCM_eight_principle.html

Wong, T S L; Klein, Louis (TBP) Viable System Model and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Five Elements Systems.

 

發自 from 黃炎 E C

辨證論治-太極陰陽表裏寒熱虛實 TCM Differential diagnosis-cure process – Taichi, Yin-Yang, Superficial-Internal, Cold-Hot, Deficient Excess

從無到陰陽表裏寒熱虛實
From emptiness to Yin-Yang, Superficial-Internal, Cold-Hot, Deficient Excess
 Full Paper 論文全文

Power of differentiation 分辨力,
boundaries
邊界,
1. Taichi from Wu Chi
無極生太極

Components組件:
我,非我
relationships關係:相交,和諧

2. Yin-Yang

Interior-Exterior
陰陽裏外


Ideal system state
完美狀態,
3. Balanced
陰陽平衡
Definition 定義
Desire 欲得 


4. Deficient of essence (Good)
正虛

5. Excess of toxin (Evil)

邪實


6.Deficient + Excess
虛實夾雜

perspective 觀點,
dimension
方向,
7. Taichi within Taichi
太極中再太極


system need Cool down strategy

熱者寒之

Cold system need Heat up strategy

寒者熱之

The System and Control Theory in the Vipassana Meditation of the Noble Eightfold Path as taught by Buddha – Understanding Meditation with the Taichi Yin-Yang System in Modern Terminologies. 佛陀所傳授的八正道內觀靜坐中所包含的系統論與控制論觀 – 以現代術語組成之太極陰陽系統來理解靜坐

Full paper

Abstract:The theory in the Vipassana Noble Eightfold meditation technique of Buddha is believedto be the Theory of Everything. However, Chinese believed that the Taichi Yin-Yangtheory is the Theory of the Universe. Albert Einstein and Richard Feynman believed inthe unity of all the equations and theories of physics to explain the nature. Could they bethe different truth of the universe? Or they are all the truth of the universe but onlyillustrated in different terminologies? It is believed that the latter one is the case. Thelinks between these theories are illustrated in this paper using modern system and controltheories.The evolution of science gave birth to our modern materialistic world. Does thismaterialism contradict with our spirituality? It is believed that both of them follow theTheory of Everything. All the contradictions arise only because of human beings, whotried to control and manipulate the universe to suit their frame of reference involvingcravings, aversions and ignorance. The practice of Vipassana meditation allows us torealize the union of materialism and spirituality, because Vipassana helps us to acquirethe ultimate wisdom, to be the master of our own mind, and to be able to make decisionsbase not on emotions but on compassion.Buddha explained the theory of our universe but said that the ultimate truth cannot be1The System Theory in the Vipassana Meditation of Buddhaexplained in the words and concepts that we use to communicate. Our common senses arebased on pattern differentiation. Our communications are based on languages. And thefundamental of all languages are mathematical logic, set theory, and Taichi Yin-Yangsystem theory, which all are again based on differentiation. Buddha said that the ultimatetruth is without differentiation, which is beyond our common senses and ourcommunication abilities. However, Buddha taught a method for everyone of us toexperience the ultimate truth ourselves. The beauty of this method is that it is simple,practical and realistic, involving no sectarianism, no imagination and no super-naturalpower. The method is similar to a virus cleaning program that will eliminates all theimpurities within our mind, allowing us to experience the ultimate truth. Even though theultimate truth cannot be explained in words, the Vipassana method itself is within ourbasic concepts and hence can be explained in terms of system and control theories.The Taichi, boundary, of this system is the “purification of my mind”. According to theTaichi Yin-Yang theory, the Yin-Yang combo will be formed in different parts of thesystem namely the internal part, and the superficial part which acts as the interfacebetween the internal and the external of the system. Research reveals that the internal Yincomponent of Vipassana method is equanimity, the balance of the mind, and the Yangcomponent is our awareness. The superficial Yin component is wisdom and the Yangcomponent is compassion. Our goal of regulation is to keep both parts of this systemworking within the balanced range of the Cold-Hot and Deficiency-Excess spectrum.The preparation stage of Vipassana meditation is Anapana meditation, the concentrationof the mind through the observation of the breath. Research shows that the techniquerequires the observer to fix the frame of reference on the entrance of the nose. Thenobserve the flow of air during breathing in and breathing out. However, only the polarityof the first derivative of the flow of air at this moment is observed. That is, whether thebreath is coming in or going out at this moment. The value of the derivative, the secondand higher derivatives, the memory of the past moments, or the prediction of the comingmoments should all be ignored.This paper will demonstrate our research of the Vipassana meditation technique as taughtby S.N. Goenka globally nowadays, in terms of the Taichi Yin-Yang system theorywhich is now structured in terms of modern system and control theories with ourresearch.Keywords: Control Theory, Differentiation & Integration, System Theory, Spiritualityand systems, The Taichi Yin-Yang system, The Four Noble Truths, Vipassana NobleEightfold Path of Buddha, Dhamma, The Theory of Everything, Vipassana Meditation AsTaught By S.N. Goenka,Systems that make a difference

Full paper

THE QUEST FOR A GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY FOR ANY PARTICULAR PERSPECTIVE – does it ever exist or has it been there all the time? 尋找適用於任何一個觀點的廣義系統論 – 是尋新還是尋舊?

[中文版]

Sciences have been developed throughout human history in order to search for a set of basic components and their relationships to one another within a certain field. System thinkers try to find a basic set of components and relationships that can be applied to all fields of science. System thinking enables the view of a big picture in a holistic perspective, so that all components, relationships, and transformations can be clearly understood by the observer.

In any system, an observer is required in order for analysis occur. In physics, speed and time do not mean anything without the frame of reference of an observer. The frame of reference of the observer determines the perspective of the analysis of the system. An observer can try to analyze a system objectively, however, being objective only means that the analysis is agreeable by a certain population of observers. There will always be a larger population of observers and hence the analysis is always relatively subjective. Objective analysis with either “no perspective” or “all perspective” is impossible, any analysis will instead take on one of an infinite number of possible perspectives.

In this paper, the properties of a general theory which can be applied in any particular perspective are analyzed. Some of the existing fundamental theories in different fields are investigated; including set theory in mathematics, relativity in physics, differential diagnosis-cure process in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taichi Yin-Yang theory in Taoism, and Five Systems theory in the teaching of Buddha.

Full paper

Published in Australia and New Zealand Society’s  ANZSYS Conference 2008

尋找適用於任何一個觀點的廣義系統論 – 是尋新還是尋舊? THE QUEST FOR A GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY FOR ANY PARTICULAR PERSPECTIVE – does it ever exist or has it been there all the time?

[English]

在整個人類歷史中,科學的發展一直都是為了在某一個領域內尋找一套基本組件和它們彼此之間的關係。而系統思想家則一直試圖尋找一組可以應用到各個科學的領域的基本組件和關係。系統思維能夠讓我們從整體的角度來看一個大藍圖,這樣觀察者就可以清楚地了解所有的組件,關係和它們之間的轉換。

我們都需要一個觀察者才可以開始分析任何系統。沒有觀察者,物理學上的速度和時間是沒有意義的。觀察者的思想體系決定了系統的分析角度。觀察者可以嘗試客觀地去分析一個系統,但是所謂客觀,只是意味著該分析是有一定數目的觀察者同意而已。之後總是可以有較多數目的觀察者,因此之前的分析始終是相對主觀的。毫無角度或全角度的客觀分析是不可能的,任何分析都只可以從無限可能多觀點中採取一個。

本文對一個可以應用在任何特定角度的廣義系統論之特性進行了分析,並與一些在不同領域中的現成基本理論進行了比較,包括數學中的集合論,物理學中的相對論,中國傳統醫學中的辨證論治,道教中的太極陰陽學說和佛陀的教學五蘊理論。

英文全文 Full paper

Published in Australia and New Zealand System Society’s 澳大利亞與新西蘭系統學會   ANZSYS Conference 2008 年研討會發表