Sciences have been developed throughout human history in order to search for a set of basic components and their relationships to one another within a certain field. System thinkers try to find a basic set of components and relationships that can be applied to all fields of science. System thinking enables the view of a big picture in a holistic perspective, so that all components, relationships, and transformations can be clearly understood by the observer.
In any system, an observer is required in order for analysis occur. In physics, speed and time do not mean anything without the frame of reference of an observer. The frame of reference of the observer determines the perspective of the analysis of the system. An observer can try to analyze a system objectively, however, being objective only means that the analysis is agreeable by a certain population of observers. There will always be a larger population of observers and hence the analysis is always relatively subjective. Objective analysis with either “no perspective” or “all perspective” is impossible, any analysis will instead take on one of an infinite number of possible perspectives.
In this paper, the properties of a general theory which can be applied in any particular perspective are analyzed. Some of the existing fundamental theories in different fields are investigated; including set theory in mathematics, relativity in physics, differential diagnosis-cure process in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taichi Yin-Yang theory in Taoism, and Five Systems theory in the teaching of Buddha.