Systems Thinking : unlocking the myth of Tree of Life. Attempts in co-relating the theory of Tree of Life, Taichi Yin-Yang Five Elements Trinity i±1 System, Traditional Chinese Medicine Differential Diagnosis-Cure Process, Schemas Theory, Relational Science, DSRP Theory, Five Aggregates of Human Mind System by Buddha, and Cognitive Process of Consciousness

International Society for the Systems Sciences 62nd annual conference ISSS2018
Health and Systems Thinking Special Integration Group presentation and Full paper

2018 July 22-27

Kelley Engineering Center Building

C2HM Hill Alumni Center

Oregon State University, USA

General systems theories have been developing with the aim of understanding the general fundamental components and relationships of knowledge across different disciplines. After 60 years of hard work and academic exchanges, many modern Western systems theories have developed with a variety of terminologies, illustrating the relationships between observers and decision makers, between systems and environment, and between the organizational forces of systems (decreases entropy with emerging effect) and the chaotic forces of the 2nd law of thermodynamics (increases entropy with de-emerging effect). In order to enrich and enlighten further development of the theories, ancient Eastern wisdoms from Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (
儒釋道醫) have been analyzed with modern systems terminologies for the “Integral East-West Systems Thinking” project by the Ancient Balance Medicine Research Institute.

Tree of Life” is a term and concept that appeared in different ancient cultures. The one that is being investigated is the Hermetic version of Tree of Life, Qabalah, as illustrated by with 10 spheres or “planes” of creation which are individually called Sephira. Other versions have more relationships between the spheres, for example, the Jewish and the Christian version. The research challenge lies in how to co-relate these 10 spheres with the numbers 2 in Ying-Yang by Taoism, 3 in Heaven-Earth-Human Trinity by Confucianism, 4 in Distictions-Systems-Relationships-Perspectives theory of analysis by Derek Cabrera, 5 in Five Elements Differential Diagnosis-Cure Process by Traditional Chinese Medicine, Five Aggregates Human Mind Systems by Buddha, Five Virtues by Confucianism, Five components in R-theory of Relational Sciences by John Kineman, 13 in the 5+3+5 levels in Emergent Meta-system in Schemas Thoery by Kent Palmer, and 15 in the 3×5 levels in the Taichi Yin-Yang Five Elements Trinity i±1 System by Ancient Balance Medicine Research Institute. All theories seem to attempt to release the boundary of duality between the physical world with precise engineering and the world of consciousness with fuzzy cognitive processes, and eventually develop different united non-dual systems thinkings. The research in this paper has found a possible set of co-relations among these different systems thinkings, by analyzing in a systemic manner, the structure of the components and relationships, and their corresponding properties and transformations.

It is believed that the bridging of these Ancient-Modern East-West (古今中西)systems thinkings would inspire more research and academic exchanges, leading to a more holistic worldview for understanding ourselves and the world around us.

2018 Workshop 工作坊: International Society for the Systems Sciences ISSS 62th conference Health and Systems Thinking Special Integration Group SIG Sunday Workshop #isss62 國際系統科學協會第62屆國際研討會健康與系統思維特別整合分組工作坊

  1. Optimizing five principles

    Systems Basics: Learning from the principles embedded in Nature to optimize the principles affecting human concentrations and consciousness – the systems thinking of the Eastern Five Aggregates Human Mind system as taught by Buddha
    系統論基礎工作坊:從學習自然界法則來優化影響專注力及意識的法則 – 藉以理解人類思想的系統性與佛學五蘊的東方系統思維 

  2. Optimizing three principals

    Optimizing five principals

    Optimizing 13 principals

    Systems Basics: Learning from the principles embedded in Nature to optimize the principles affecting Insomnia and consciousness – the systems thinking in the Eastern Taichi Yin-Yang Five Elements system in Traditional Chinese Medicine
    系統論基礎工作坊:從學習自然界法則來優化影響失眠及意識的法則 – 藉以理解人類身體的系統性與中醫藥學之太極陰陽五行天地人的東方系統思維

ISSN: 1999-6918



Call for Papers: Theme — Innovation and Optimization in Nature and Design

The 2018 ISSS Conference will explore foundational discoveries about the nature of complex systems which are now arising from research in systems disciplines such as Systems Biology, Systems Medicine, Systems Psychology, Systems Economics, Complexity Science and General Systems Research.

Over the last few decades many academic fields have developed systems specializations in order to investigate the systemic aspects of their subject areas, and in these areas there is a search for systems concepts and principles under such notions as design principles, organizing principles, channelling functions, and optimality principles.  The 2018 Conference of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) will bring together these specialised strands of work, laying foundations for establishing the profound systems science that would enable us to design and optimize for elegant functionality and enduring value at any level of complexity.

We invite abstracts for presentation of papers, posters and workshops about the conference theme specifically or in connection with the themes of the ISSS’s Systems Integration Groups (SIGs) and Exploratory Groups, which are listed below.

(Zen and Five Elements) 禅解五行篇


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"The loneliest moment in someone’s life is when they are watching their whole world fall apart, and all they can do is stare blankly." - F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

(Zen and Five Elements) 禅解五行篇

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Systems Basics: Systemic solutions with evidence-based medicine for relief from Insomnia – the systems thinking for everyone’s body through Traditional Chinese Medicine on the systems science of Taichi Yin-Yang Five Elements 系統論基礎工作坊:循證醫學緩解失眠的探討 – 藉以理解人類身體的系統性與中醫藥學之太極陰陽五行天地人的東方系統思維

 International Society for the Systems Sciences 61th conference

Sunday Afternoon workshop: 

Insomnia has become a modern city sickness. Research has been carried out to evaluate different Traditional Chinese Medicine treatments using evidence-based medicine methodologies. The cause of insomnia may come from one or more of the five elements systems, including the Wood mental system, the Fire emotional system, the Metal behavioural system, the Water spiritual system, and the Earth physical system (with one or more of its five sub-systems).

From this analysis we will try to find the common structure and relationship that can be generalized using systems thinking which could be applied to treat different sickness and promote healthcare. Research has shown that this systems thinking is rooted in the fundamental concept in traditional Chinese culture since around 500BC. The concept is also embedded in the teaching of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The traditional Chinese system theories under investigation include the Taichi yin-yang system theory, the Five systems theory of the human mind, and the Traditional Chinese Medicine differential diagnosis-cure process. These theories are found to be related to different modern system theories including Viable system model.

Taichi yin-yang system theory describes the relationship between any two entities (element/process) at any level of interest. It concerns the quantitative and qualitative changes between the entities. This is related to causal loop diagram (CLD) in system dynamics which uses reinforcing loop and balancing loop. The observer is not specified in the theories, but the perspectives of the observer actually determine the entities, the unit of quantitative changes, and the ratio of qualitative changes. The Five systems theory of the human mind is one of the important concepts developed in the teaching of Buddha. The Five systems are: awareness, perspective, sensation, action and physical object. These five systems can be used to describe the properties of the observer and the decision maker.

The Traditional Chinese Medicine differential diagnosis-cure process is a practical systemic process that has been used daily for more than 2000 years. It is believed that the whole macroscopic-microscopic spectrum of systems can be suitably accommodated. The system state identification involves three pairs of direction-forming spectrums. The Superficial and Internal spectrum gathers information between the boundary and the system. The Cold and Hot spectrum gathers information between the form and function, or matter and energy within the system. The Deficient and Excess spectrum gathers information between the environment and the system. Strategy can then be formulated to regulate and maintain the system.


Happy Birthday to my dear teacher Buddha



My Gratitude to Buddha… Thank you for teaching me how to look after the physical body. Thank you for teaching me how to manage the emotional mind. Thank you for teaching me the correct mental perception of kindness. Thank you for showing me how to live a life that is full of charitable behavior. Thank you for revealing the wisdom of Impermanence, Dissatisfaction, and Egolessness.

發自 from 黃炎 E C

System wholeness and Unity in Diversity within ISSS 2016 系統的完整性與系統界之求同存異、博大精深、見微知著、對立統一。

中醫藥工程學 Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering

Chicken or egg first 先有雞還是先有雞蛋?

國際系統科學協會第60屆週年國際研討會 The 60th Annual World Conference of the International Society for the Systems Sciences

健康與系統思維特別融合小組 Health and System thinking Special Integration Group

Workshop : 2016.07.24 University of Colorado, USA.

系統論基礎工作坊:佛學的東方系統思維 以天人合一理解系統完整性 Systems Basics in Understanding System Wholeness “Reuniting Nature and Humanity”: The Oriental Systems Thinking in the teaching of Buddha.

Presentation: System wholeness and Unity in Diversity within ISSS 系統的完整性與系統界之求同存異、博大精深、見微知著、對立統一。

Abstract: A better way to explain the wholeness from an oriental point of view is the major direction of our research, but in the end it seems to coincide with modern Western systems thinking such as Relational-theory and DSRP systems thinking, as well as physics and mathematics. The first step starts from the concentration on the parts as in Reductionistic thinking, to the concentration on wholeness as in Systems thinking. Both schools of thought are important in their corresponding applications. The second step involves the combination of the observer and decision maker into the system, similar to the five aggregates human mind system in the teaching of Buddha, and the Relational-Theory by John Kineman. But finally the structure of the environment also need to be included for the sack of wholeness, similar to Schema theory by Kent Palmer. Now all three are coming together and forming the much better wholeness. However, this is only the structure and properties of the wholeness, and there is also the diagnostic and regulative part from Traditional Chinese Medicine, which could be the application part of systems theory in real life problem solving. Together they are very promising in forming the wholeness of systems theory and systems practice.

The structures and functions of human body in Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on the oriental system thinking of Taichi Yin-Yang structures and functions. Researches show that similar structures and functions are found in modern Western systems theories which are composed of systems, observers and decision makers, and the environment. TCM employs different systemic models to diagnose the human body. However, all these models employ the common 3D structure of Superficial-Internal, Cold-Hot, and Deficient-Excess spectrums. This oriental systems thinking seems promising in combining with modern Western systems theory in the application of system diagnosis and re-balancing. It is hoped that the combination of the east-west systems thinking will finally help human understanding in solving the modern complex problems.

Chinese writing, English writing, Middle East writing emerging from different directions will in the end all occupy the whole paper to express the intended ideas, emotion, systems, instructions, and knowledge. Different systemic models arise together with their corresponding observers and decision makers. That is, people located with different geometrical properties, from Southern or Northern part of china. In addition, people with different properties because of the different state of their civilization, either at war or peace, lack of or over-supply of food, too much leisure or too much hard work. That is to say, the systemic model is also related to the environment, combined and emerged into the perspectives part, the water sub-system, of the whole system.


-Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering by Tomas www.YinYangBalance.Asia

中醫藥工程學 黃炎 – www.陰陽平衡.com

-Schemas Theory Research Initiative by Kent Palmer

-Relational Theory by John Kineman

-DSRP systems thinking by Derek Cabrera

-Platonic Solids in All Dimensions:




Protected: Editing: Systemic leadership open system vs Reductionistic bossy close system.

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SYNTHESIZING TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE AND ENGINEERING THROUGH SYSTEM ENGINEERING – Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering 以系統工程學綜合中醫藥與工程學 – 中醫藥工程學 Project ID: 1991-004HK2.0

Presentation: 13:30 Parallel Sessions – Tuesday July 29, 2014 Funger Hall Room 207 Funger Hall Room 220 ISSS2014 conference paper #2286

Full Paper: T S L Wong, E C Yan Huang, 2016, Synthesising Traditional Chinese Medicine and Engineering through Systems Engineering: Traditional Chinese Medicine Engineering Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS), Vol 1, No 1 (2016) ISSN: 1999-6918


This paper searches for an entry point and a platform to learn across boundaries to achieve synthesis, so that Traditional Chinese Medicine and system engineering could also understand each other and benefit from each other. The search involves investigation of both western and eastern point of view including systems theories, set theory, Confucianism, and Daoism. A promising Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System is established through this research.

Keywords: Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System 陰陽五行天地人系統, pattern identification/syndrome differentiation and treatment/ Differential Diagnosis-cure process 辨證論治, holism 整體觀念, unification between nature and human 天人相應, differentiation and integration 分辨與整合,微分與積分, Fractals, macroscopic-microscopic systemic view 宏觀與微觀的系統性, 中庸 doctrine of the mean, 中道 The middle path, synthesizing, traditional chinese medicine, engineering, system engineering, traditional chinese medicine engineering 中醫藥工程學, Systems Thinking, Good n Evil Yin-Yang chart, DSRP system, Relational Theory, Schema Theory, Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism


Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been servicing and maintaining the health of human bodies for thousands of years. Due to the isolation and control policies of the last two dynasties Ming and Qing, scientific inventions are not being applied to TCM. On the other hand, Western Medicine (WM) has been technologically advanced by the engineering of the industrial revolution age.

Nowadays, many researchers and engineers have tried to advance TCM with modern technologies, for example, medical expert diagnosis system, office automation, herbal ingredient spectrum analysis, modern medical diagnosis machines. However, the merging has not resulted in much advancement in TCM as in WM. The reason, as believed, is that TCM is a holistic diagnosis-cure process while industrial revolution age engineering is reductionism.

It is believed that real advancement could be achieved by the synthesis of TCM with system engineering. Not only that TCM could be advanced, system engineering could also benefit from the experience of thousands of years of holistic servicing and maintaining the human body complex system. This paper searches for the entry point and the platform to learn across boundaries for the synthesis, so that TCM and system engineering could also understand each other and benefit from each other.

TCM is being practiced daily based on the theory of differential diagnosis-cure process. It involves firstly, the awareness, that is, the systemic observation of the human body for information collection. Secondly, the perspectives, which involve the systemic choice of related rules and relationships. Thirdly is the systemic choice of importance, that is, the formulation of weighting of each piece of information and perspectives. Finally is the systemic choice of strategies, for regulation of the self-healing system of the human body to regain the balance. The cycle of these four aggregates would continue to adapt to changes in the environment and the human body system until the healthy objective is achieved. The current state of the human body is represented by three fundamental spectrums, namely, the Superficial-Internal spectrum, the Cold-Hot spectrum and the Deficiency-Excess spectrum, which are believed to have the same origin as set theory. The body can then be divided into five sub-systems namely, liver-wood, heart-fire, spleen-earth, lung-metal, and kidney-water, each system has its own sub-state represented by the same kind of three spectrums.

It is believed that the same diagnosis-cure principals could be applied to either natural or man-made systems. To develop a systemic expert diagnosis system in the perspective of system engineering would help TCM to practically make use of modern information revolution age engineering technology. It would also provide a platform for understanding the holistic view and application of TCM to the natural complex human body system.

Future work would involve the search for possible system engineering projects to be constructed for the other two important theories of TCM.

The theory of holism in TCM is embedded everywhere but usually referred to in the theory of “correspondence between nature and human”, or “human living with the environment”. The coherence is divided into three parts namely, the sky, the earth, and the human, which could correspond to time, space and observer (and decision maker). Different time of the year, location and people in the environment would provide favorable and unfavorable conditions for different actions.

The third theory for possible entry point is the differentiation and integration properties of the Taichi Yin-Yang system theory and the five elements system theory. This property shows that no matter how many times we differentiate a system into sub-systems, the Taichi Yin-Yang and five elements properties apply. On the other hand, no matter how many times we integrate sub-systems into a single system, the Taichi Yin-Yang and five elements properties also apply. This would facilitate the design, implementation and maintenance of the whole macroscopic-microscopic spectrum of systems.

With all three theories, one fundamental process applies to them all. That is, the continuous balancing of the spectrums in order to achieve the objectives. This same process exists in Confucianism as the “Doctrine of the Mean”, and also in the teaching of Buddha as “The Middle Path”.


The whole is greater than the sum of its parts was pointed out by Aristotle. Systems thinking involves more than just analyzing the object making up from different parts, but rather involves the parts and their relationships, the structure and functions of the object, its environment, the boundary, and the observer(s) and decision maker(s) as well (Dekkers 2014) as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The common structure and function of systems thinking

  1. The properties of the observer

Human senses works by differentiation (distinction) (Wong 2008) (Klein & Wong 2012). All senses differentiate the object (signal) from the environment through the boundary. In engineering terms the ability of the sensor to detect depends on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) (Wikipedia a). An analogy is the basic axions in set theory in mathematics (Al Lehnen 2007) as shown in Figure 2. As a result, the differentiation process produce three components namely A, not A and the boundary. It also produce two relationships namely union and interaction.

Figure 2. The Simplest Axioms in Set Theory

Since the differentiation inherited in the six human senses, namely sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste and thought (Wong 2008), is universal to human, it could be used as a common platform for communications.


Traditional Chinese Medicine employs different differential diagnosis-cure processes to determine the state of the human body and prescribe corresponding strategies for a cure (Kaptchuk 2000)(Wong 2010c). And research shown that there exists a basic pattern (Wong 2007a)(Wong 2010c) for all the different processes, namely superficial-internal spectrum, cold-hot spectrum, and deficient-excess spectrum, which are first mentioned in (HuangDi 206BC- 25AD) (Gou 1999). The static and dynamics of the spectrums are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively.

Figure 3. The static form of 3 common spectrums in all TCM differential diagnosis-cure processes

Figure 4. The dynamic form of the 3 common spectrums

TCM is the maintenance engineering rather than design engineering of the human body. Research show that the body state of human body can be represented graphically as the simple Good n Evil Yin-Yang chart as in Figure 5a or the complete Good n Evil Yin-Yang chart with the Superficial-Internal spectrum as in Figure 5b (Wong 2005a).

Figure 5a. The simple Good and Evil Yin-Yang Chart

Figure 5b. The complete Good and Evil Yin-Yang Chart

Our research found that a 3D representation provides a more vivid understanding and could correlate with the representation of the dynamics in Cybernetics, as shown in Figure 6. However it should be noted that this 3D spectrum is not another representation of the 3D space. It is believed that future research would shown that the spectrums could be used to represent the whole space-time and systems together in one.

Figure 6. The 3D geometric representation of the Good and Evil Yin-Yang Chart

Note that the Taichi (boundary) Yin-Yang (not A and A) combo could be used to represent mathematical formulas, for representation of relationships and transformations. The most important formula in physics is,

E = mc2

Yang Taichi Yin

After re-arrangement, we have

E/c = mc

Yang compress Taichi Yin expand

which have division on the LHS and multiplication on the RHS. The division could be thought of as compression and the multiplication could be thought of as expansion geometrically on the number spectrum (Sanderson 2015). This compression of energy into matters is found in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for making new matters, and the expansion of matter into energy is found in all nuclear plant. That is, the exchanges between Yin and Yang require two different processes. As a result, the static three elements in the Taichi Yin-Yang combo requires two more processes to become dynamic. Five elements exists in oriental systems thinking in TCM, Confucianism and Doaism (Wong 2008). Our research shown that the five element systems could be represented as in Figure 7 with the engendering (birth) cycle and the restraining (control) cycle (Wong 2005a).

Figure 7. The Five Elements System

Therefore, we started with the differentiation nature of human senses, which produce the three elements Taichi Yin-Yang combo, which then produce the five elements system. That is, the choice of three and five is not particular observer dependent, but rather universal to all observers.

The preliminary matching of the Five Elements System and other system theories are shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8. The preliminary matching of Five Elements System and other System Theories

Future work is underway to investigate the possible matching with Viable System Model (VSM) and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Five Elements System (Wong TBP)


The five aggregates human system was employed by Buddha (Buddha 2500 BC) to represent the properties of human body and mind. The idea was explained in details in Vipassana mental healthcare 10 days courses held all over the world (Goenka1987a). Research shown the possible relationship between the five aggregates and the fundamental systems theory (Wong 2008) as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9. The Five Aggregates human system of Buddha

The fifth aggregate is the physical body which is composed of the four material elements of earth, water, fire and air (Goenka1987a). Together with the idea of emptiness mentioned in (Buddha 2500 BC), it is possible to match the five elements system in TCM, Confucianism and Doaism with the four material elements of Buddha. Future research would be to investigate if Figure 10 would be a possible practical match.

Figure 10. The Four Natures of Physical Matters of Buddha and the Five Elements


The idea of “unification of nature and human” was pointed out in Confucianism and Daoism, and was one of the most important concept in TCM (Kaptchuk 2000, 天人合一). Confucianism pointed out that in I Ching Hexagram that the top two lines represent Heaven (), middle to lines represent Human (), and the bottom two lines represent Earth () as shown in Figure 11 (Confucius 479 BC, part II 兼三才而兩之).

___ ___
___ ___Heaven ()
___ ___
______Human ()
______Earth ()

Figure 11. The Heaven Earth and Human System

Water is the most important elements in the teaching of Daoism (Laozi 590 BC, Ch 8, 76, 78). Water has almost the same properties of Dao (Tao), with the difference being water has form while Dao has none. Maybe the water system in the five elements system theory could be expanded into five elements as well.


Schema theory is developed by Dr. Kent Palmer (Palmer 2004) for constructing a foundation for systems engineering. Figure 12 shows the possible matching of the three levels of five elements systems with the 13 levels in Schema theory, namely Pluriverse, Kosmos, World, Domain, Open Scape, Reflexive Social, Autopoietic Symbiotic, Dissipative ordering, System, Form, Pattern, Monad, Facet. Note that it match with a five elements system structure with the Earth and Water systems expanded into two other five elements systems of different levels, resulting in 13 levels! It has been the believe that the environment is outside the five systems at level i, however, our research shows that the five elements system could be more compact, simple and fractal.

Figure 12. The Basic 13 Levels in Schema Theory


It should be noted that the 13 levels structure of the level i+-1 system could be applied to any system at level i. From the above analysis, the whole structure seem to be the direct result of the observation nature of the human observers, rather than an arbitrary invention. We named this discovery as the Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System as shown in Figure 13.

TCM inherited as a daily practice, the essence of oriental ancient systems thinking. It does not only contain the basic structure of systems but also the maintenance process of the human systems. Therefore, the theory is useful for both design engineering and maintenance engineering.

Figure 13. The Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System

TCM was thought of as the macroscopic level medicine while the western medicine was thought of as the microscopic one. Therefore resulting in strong conflicts between them. However, with the help of systems engineering, it reveals that both the human level i system and the cell level i-x system would have the same systemic structure and functions. This common platform would provide effective communications between TCM and WM for investigating the best medicine for regulating human bodies.


In this paper we start from the investigation of the properties of human senses but similarities are found in different fields of sciences including mathematics, physics, engineering, systems thinking and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previous research combined the observer and systems into one Five Elements System and the environment as the element outside the Five Elements System. However in this paper, the Five Elements Level i+-1 system is established, which includes all the fundamental components of systems thinking in just one Five Elements Systems, with nothing else outside. The Water sub-system is the environment. This important discovery is very promising and would largely advance the Taichi Yin-Yang Systems theory and the Five Elements System theory.

It is believed that the Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System structure and system function could be used as a systems design tool or a system maintenance tool, for systems with any size and complexity. Moreover, the Yin-Yang Five Elements i ± 1 System model could be used as a platform for communications between analysis of different levels of i+-x. For example, it could be a communication platform for the modern medical cellular analysis at level i-x, the TCM human healthcare analysis at level i, and even the social analysis at level i+x.

Future works could involve the mathematical constant ratio and transformation functional relationships between the five systems and the systems at different levels.


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Buddha (2500 BC). The Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra 《般若波羅蜜多心經》
. India (Heart Sutra / The Heart of Prajna Paramita Sutra)

Confucius (479 BC). Confusions Ten Wings shiyi 十翼China《系辭上傳》曰:「一陰一陽謂之道」. Accessible at, on May 1, 2007.

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Kaptchuk Ted. (2000) The web that has no weaver: Understanding Chinese Medicine. McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN:0809228408

Klein, Louis; Wong, T S L (2012). The Yin and Yang of Changes: Systemic Efficacy in Change Management [Full Paper]. Leadership through the Classics: Learning Management and Leadership from Ancient East and West Philosophy,  International Conference on Leadership and Management in a Changing World:Lessons from Ancient East and West Philosophy? Athens, Greece, 12-14 June 2011, p475-486 Part VII Chapter 32. Also published in Leadership through the Classics: Learning Management and Leadership from Ancient East and West Philosophy, Edited by: Gregory Prastacos, Fuming Wang and Klas Eric Soderquist Published by Springer; ISBN: 978-3-642-32444-4 (Print), 978-3-642-32445-1 (Online) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelbery 2012

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Palmer Kent D. (2004). The Foundations of General Schemas Theory – As an Extension to Systems Theory to Form a Mathematical and Philosophical Basis for Systems Engineering, USA. Conference on System Engineering Research CSER 2004 available at

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Wikipeida (a)  Signal-to-noise ratio 

Wong, T.S.L and others (2005a). Traditional Chinese Medicine Diet – the food dictionary 中醫食療字典, ISBN 978-988-985-865-0, Copyright Ancient Balance Medicine Education Center Ltd., Hong Kong 版權所有 古中醫教育中心有限公司(香港).

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Wong, T S L; Huang Yan (2008) THE QUEST FOR A GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY FOR ANY PARTICULAR PERSPECTIVE – does it ever exist or has it been there all the time?[Full paper] Australia and New Zealand system Society’s ANZSYS conference 2008. Edith Cowan University (ECU), Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 1 -2 December 2008.Available at: 

Wong, T S L; Huang Yan (2010c) The quest for a general information gathering process for diagnosis at the macroscopic level and the microscopic level – the Traditional Chinese Medicine eight principle differential diagnostic-cure process. [Abstract] 54th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences – Governance for a Resilient Planet. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada 18–23 July 2010. Available at:

Wong, T S L; Klein, Louis (TBP) Viable System Model and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Five Elements Systems.


發自 from 黃炎 E C

靈性與系統特別融合小組: 佛法四聖諦八正道之系統思維與跨學科應用工作坊 System theory and our minds – a systemic way of understanding ourselves, each other, the nature, the past and future possibilities

靈性與系統特別融合小組: 佛法四聖諦八正道之系統思維與跨學科應用工作坊
System theory and our minds – a systemic way of understanding ourselves, each other, the nature, the past and future possibilities


Observers‘ and
Decision makers’
ability in system theory

reason of why to act
(Yin supports)


power of how to act
(Yang operates)


(Yin supports)

Awareness 覺知:

consciousness 意識,

Perception 觀念:

perspective 看法,

preferences, prejudices, ignorance and wisdom

Decision maker
(Yang operates)

Sensation 感受

Difference between the awareness of the present reality and the awareness of perspectives in memory, causing the Flow of energy and matter (information), and resulting in Desire.


Reaction 反應:

mental conditioning 心理條件作用)Strategy 策略,
Action triggered by sensations
Stronger perception, stronger sensation, stronger reaction.

These four characters together with the physical body system (色) is said to be the five aggregates of human in the teaching of Buddha (Buddha 500BC a), (Buddha 500BC b) (Goenka 1987a) (Goenka 1987b).

Full paper:


The application of system theory requires the understanding of ourselves, each other, the nature, the past and future possibilities in a systemic way. That is, we need to understand both the structure and dynamics of our physical body systems, and of our mental observers. Research shows that the composition of our body and that of our mind may be explained by the same system theory relating energy, matter, life and information. We employed this simple ancient system theory as taught by Buddha to investigate how our naturally systemic-structured mind artificially developed all this non-systemic and problematic thinkings. We use our body to experience the world around us but our mind is the one who is observing and making the decisions to change the world. System theory sees the world composed of observers,decision makers, systems, the environment, the boundaries and the relationships among them. And there are two opposite forces in the world that constantly interacting with each other, creating the flow of energy, matter and information between systems and the environment. On one hand we have the disorder force governed by the second law of thermodynamics that drive everything into a equilibrium state with maximum entropy. On the other hand we have the organizational force governed by the constrains of a system that drive the system into a particular desired steady state with a low entropy.

Our mind are both the observer and the decision maker with a major problem. Throughout our life we have been looking for satisfaction that brings happiness. Our government have been relying on economics to achieve this but 80% of the time we are dis-satisfied with the people and situations around us, bringing craving, aversion and ignorance into our minds and creating all sorts of problems in our society. This is called suffering in the teaching of Buddha, and he offered us with a three step solution for our mind. In this workshop we investigate the systemic view of these three steps namely self protection, concentration and purification of our mind. We also investigate a 10 days Vipassana mental healthcare program for people of all religions including scientific communities. It is believed such a program could bring happiness, peacefulness and harmony for our community.

Death is the end of our lives or just the beginning of another new life? A system undergoes a transition of system state upon death, but will the system continue in other forms at other places? Or will it just terminate totally? What are the possible new system states and are they sustainable? In this workshop we will investigate the sustainability of Heaven, Hell, Earth and Nibbana (null). And we investigate the way to prepare ourselves to transit into these states.